Book Reviews Rev. 11


              WANKEL TYPE ROTARY ENGINES

* The definitive book on the rotary is simply called "ROTARY ENGINE" 
by Kenichi Yamamoto published by Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd. (Mazda) in 
1969. This is a highly technical book chronicling the development of 
the wankel by Mazda. Kenichi is an engineer and has risen to  CEO of 
Mazda. 


* This book on the rotary is also  called "ROTARY ENGINE" 
by Kenichi Yamamoto published by Sankaido Co. Ltd. 
Second edition published in 1981. This is an updated version of 
the first "ROTARY ENGINE" book. Confusing eh what? This book
has a much greater emphasis on emissions.

* Another technical book on the Wankel rotary engine is; "The Wankel 
RC Engine Design and Performance" by R.F.Ansdale Published by A.S. 
Barnes & Company Lib of Cong 69-18692

* The Wankel engine Design Development Application by Jan P. Norbye. 
Chilton Book Company. ISBN 0-8019-5591-2 Published in 1971. A little 
history and results of the Wankel engine development by NSU, 
Mercedes, Mazda and others and some results of work by 
Curtiss-Wright.  Also some history on all rotary engines. Not as 
technical as I would like but not bad. 

These books will be easier to find then the Toyo Kogyo book.

* 
Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race.
(Mazda won the race outright beating all of the famous European race car
builders.) Ritsuharu Shimizu, Tomoo Tadokoro, Toru Nakanishi, and Junici
Funamoto Mazda Motor Corporation. SAE paper 920309. By far the best
technical paper on the Mazda Wankel type rotary engine. Lots of information
on how to make a powerful, normally aspirated, light weight all aluminum,
heavy duty rotary engine.

* Many other SAE papers were published by Mazda engineers.

* Test of Thermal-Barrier and Wear Coats in Rotary Engines. NASA Tech Briefs
LEW-16512 by Paul Moller. Self explanatory title. Work based on the OMC all
aluminum snow-mobile engine.

* Curtiss Wright published quite a few SAE papers back in the 60's 
and 70's on their development of the rotary for aircraft use.

* Engine Revolutions: The Autobiography of Max Bentele. Max was intimately
involved in the early development of the Wankel rotary engine both while in
Germany and in the U.S. while working for Curtiss Wright and Lycoming. One
or two chapters on the history of the Wankel type rotary engine development.


    COOLING SYSTEMS.
 
* Aerodynamics of Propulsion. D. Kuchemann & J. Weber McGraw-Hill Book Company
Inc. 1953 Lib. Of Cong. Card # 52-6541 The bible of the aerodynamic design
of scoops and ducts. Also covers ducted propellers.


* Compact Heat Exchangers. W.M. Kays and A. L. London Kreiger Publishing
Company. Malabar Florida. 1998 The bible of heat exchangers.
Some work on ducts (called headers in this book). Very comprehensive.

Every few years the American Society of Mechanical Engineers holds
symposiums on heat transfer. Same for the Instate of Mechanical Engineers
AKA IMechE London and the SAE. Lately the automotive industry is getting 
so competitive this kind of info is drying up.  

    AIRCRAFT and all other types of intermittent  ICE's IN GENERAL

* Sky Ranch Engineering Manual. This book presents an excellent 
overview of the problems of aircraft engines. It is 500  pages and a 
bargain at only $23. There are many details on the materials and 
processes used to build a successful aircraft engine. There is a 
very good and exhaustive discussion of destructive  torsional 
vibrations and fatigue. The telephone number  to buy this book is 
(916) 421 7672. The author is John Schwaner. John is highly thought 
of in the experimental aircraft community. 


* For those of you with an engineering degree or equivalent Taylor's 
series of books is the best there is. The bible of engine design. 

The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. 

Volume 1: Thermodynamics, Fluid Flow, Performance. Second Edition 
Revised. 

Volume 2: Combustion, Fuels, Materials, Design. Revised. Charles 
Fayette Taylor. The MIT Press Cambridge Massachusetts, and London 
England.  AutoBooks in Burbank CA.


*Advanced engine technology by Heinz Heisler. Published by
the SAE in 1995. An up to date treatment of the latest technology
as applied to the piston engine.

* Introduction to the Study of Aircraft Vibration and Flutter by 
Robert H. Scanlan & Robert  Rosenbaum, Dover Publications touches 
on crankshaft design. Lib Cong 68-22341.


* Photo-Elastic Analysis by A. W. Hendry, Pergamon Press investigates 
stress concentrations in complex machine parts such as crankshafts 
and connecting rods. Lib of Cong # 65-29062. Only recently has 
computer finite element analysis developed to the point of 
perhaps doing a better job on crankshafts than these techniques 
invented in the 30's. The book has a great bibliography on the 
subject.


* I can highly recommend a book by Herschel Smith called "A History  of
Aircraft Piston Engines" published by Sunflower University Press Inc. 1531
Yuma, Manhattan, Kansas 66502-4228. ISBN 0-07-058472-9. 629.134'352 in a
good library. This is a reprint of a book originally published by McGraw
Hill in 1981. Fourth printing 1993. There are 250, 8.5 by 11 pages. It
chronicles the evolution of the aircraft engine from early days to the
present. There are many tables listing every engine ever put in an airplane
with all important specifications including weight, horsepower, RPM,
configuration and in some cases BSFC. There are many photos and drawings of
all types of aircraft engines. This is as close to a bible of aircraft
engine history that I have found so far. About
$22. 

* Vee's For Victory! by Daniel D. Witney. An extensive and comprehensive
book on the history and engineering of the Allison V-1700 liquid
cooled aircraft engine. 8.5 by 11, hard bound, 470 pages. $59.95.
Schiffer Military History. Atglen PA ISBN:0-7643-0561-1

* Schneider Trophy Racers by Robert S. Hirsch. Motorbooks 
International Osceola WI. Excellent history of the water cooled V12 
leading up to the Merlin. Lots of good drawings done by the author 
and photos.

* Thompson Trophy Racers. Roger Huntington. Motorbooks 
International. 1989 ISBN 0-87938-365-8. $19.95. 8.5" by 11" 188 
pages. Fascinating reading. Lots of good mechanical drawings, photos 
and cut-aways on aircraft engines plus a good history of the 
development of aircraft engines for air racing. 

* The development of Piston Aero Engines by Bill Gunston 1993, 1994, 
1995. ISBN 1 85260 385 2. Patrick Stevens Limited/Haynes Publishing 
Sparkford Nr Yeovil, Somerset, BA227JJ. Hard bound 213 pages. $39.95 
at the Wright Pat Air force Museum.

The first half of the book is on basic principles and engine design. 
For the most part this is very well done for the non-physicist 
non-engineer reader. 

The middle is a history of of the development of aircraft engines. 
The author criticizes Fiat compared to Rolls-Royce for not 
developing high HP per cubic inch while still acknowledging that the 
V24 Fiat powered Macchi MC.72 still holds the world's seaplane 
record set in 1934 at 440 MPH! Sounds like a little British Empire 
envy to me. HP per cubic inch is irrelevant when it comes to 
aircraft engines. What really counts is continuous  HP per pound and 
continuous HP per square foot of engine frontal area.  There is no 
replacement for displacement. 

The last chapter;  "Chapter 8 Piston Engines Today and Tomorrow" 
categorizes engines by air cooled, liquid cooled, diesels  and 
unconventional. All engines are included world wide no matter how 
obscure  starting with low power engines for ultra-lights through 
auto engine conversions. The major fault with this chapter is all 
engines are listed from PR information regardless if they have flown 
or even run for that matter. Teledyne Continental is given almost 
equal weight with TTL (UK). Ever hear of TTL (UK)? 

In the case of auto engine conversions he quotes Blanton with his 
Ford V6 powered Cessna  175 that supposedly cruised faster than the 
GO-300 (geared opposed) model and unrealistically burned 6.8 gallons 
an hour (90 HP at 0.45 BSFC) instead of 12 gallons per hour for the 
GO-300 (157 HP at 0.45 BSFC) without checking the numbers. Bill 
Gunston should know better. 

I think Bill  Gunston is a little gullible. Other than that the 
book seems to be excellent.

* SAE Paper # 871042    0148-7191/87/0428-1042 $2.50 Design and 
Development of the Voyager 200/300 Liquid Cooled Aircraft Engine by 
R.E. Wilkinson. Twenty pages. Published in 1987. This paper is about 
the engine used in the Rutan Voyager around-the-world un-refueled 
record holder. If you never read anything else about any kind of 
engine you must read this paper. It is by far the most informative 
and up to date information on liquid cooled engines there is. 

The real critical limitations of the aluminum head engine are 
thoroughly explored. That is; the temperature of the metal 
immediately adjacent to the combustion chamber. Aluminum loses half 
of it's fatigue life when the temperature goes up from 250 degrees 
to 500 degrees F. Therefor this temperature limits the amount of 
continuous power obtainable from any engine whether air-cooled or 
liquid cooled. Just because the coolant temp. is less than 220 
degrees F does not mean the metal next to the combustion chamber is 
anywhere near that at high power levels. The continuous HP 
requirements are far higher for an aircraft engine than they are for 
an auto engine or pickup truck engine. 

The Automotive manufacturers rarely publish any real information 
about engines in the SAE due to the highly competitive nature of the 
automobile marketplace.  This paper is an outstanding exception for 
the SAE. A must read bargain of real information.


* Smithsonian Air & Space magazine article "Power Struggle" by Don 
Sherman, January 1997, page 72. Excellent ten page  article (with 
many pictures) about auto engines in airplanes. A brief history of 
all auto engines in airplanes and a more detailed history of the 
twenty year, twenty million dollar  development of the Chevy V8 
based, all aluminum Orenda liquid cooled aircraft engine. At this 
time (Jan 1997) and well after the article was written the engine 
failed its FAA 150 hour full power certification test due to a 
crankshaft problem after 20 years of very expensive development. 
It was finally certified in 1998 by Transport Canada.

Extensive changes have been made to the basic Chevy big block engine 
including a parallel cooling system with dual coolant pumps as 
opposed to the serial cooling system with single pump as typically 
found in automotive engines. Parallel cooling systems were 
considered to be essential in the 1920's on liquid cooled aircraft 
engines. 

Engine length is almost everything to a car designer. Engine cooling 
compromises are made by simezing the cylinder walls in automotive 
engines. Crankshaft life at high continuous power is compromised by 
shortening the length, leaving too little room for adequate size 
journal fillet radii. In my opinion this engine will not be 
successful until it is re-designed from a clean sheet of paper to be 
a real aircraft engine. If that happens they might as well go to a 
horizontal opposed configuration for lighter weight.

Orenda is now in the process of moving the project to Nova Scotia 
and injecting another 32 million dollars of mostly Canadian 
government money. They are also attempting to market the engine to 
the homebuilt market. I don't expect many takers at over $100K per engine. 

Recently Lancair gave up after spending a lot of money installing
the engine in a special airplane called the Lancair Tigress.
The engine and the Tigress were donated to the EAA museum as
a tax write off.

The Orenda company is now bankrupt.

"Those that fail to learn from history are doomed to repeat it." 

* SAE Paper 690302. Designing Cast Components for V8 Engines. J.L.
Fitz et. al. Central Foundry Division of GM. Written before GM 
clamped a lid on all real information published by their engineers 
in the form of SAE papers. This paper is about the trials and 
tribulations of making an engine work as designed by the stylist 
and using chewing gum materials as specified by the bean counters.

* SAE paper 841221 Development of Powder-Forged Connecting Rods
by K. Imaahashi, C. Tsumuki, & I. Nagare.  Toyota Motor Corp.
The conversion of Kg/mm^2 to P.S.I is by multiplying Kg/mm^2 by 1.45.
The Toyoto rods, according to this paper, are about as good as forged
SAE 10L55. Aircraft engine rods are made from forged 4340 which has 
at least a 25% better fatigue life than forged SAE 10L55.

* V-6 BUICK FORD & CHEVY 90 deg./60 deg. Performance. by Pat Ganahl 
CARTECH 1988 ISBN 0-931472-13-X $18.95 I normally don't recommend 
books of this genre as they do not have the detailed and factual 
engineering information such as BSFC, stress and heat rejection 
information necessary to successfully adapt and auto engine to 
aircraft use. What this book does, in it's introduction and 
crankshaft chapters, is discuss the myriad compromises that led to 
the 90 degree V6 auto engine. 

The real reason such a fundamentally mechanically unbalanced and 
problematical design is used in cars is revealed. I.E. the properly 
designed, high displacement, 60 degree V6 is too tall for modern car 
styling and the 90 deg. V6 can be made on the same production line 
as the V8. Consider this book one that should be read on why you 
should not put a 90 degree V6 in your airplane. Besides, all V and 
in-line engines are trying to jam their crankshafts out the bottom 
of their blocks anyway. This is one of the reasons they are 
inevitably heavier than opposed engines.

* Hotrod Magazine. GEN III. The first look at the all new GM 
small-block V8 LS1. By Jeff Smith. Page 50, September 1996. Normally 
auto magazines do not publish the material specifications for auto 
engine parts. This article on the AL alloy block Chevy V8 LS1 engine 
is an exception. Crank, rods and main bearing caps are specified as 
either cast iron or powdered metal. Chevy actually went down on the 
valve stem diameter to reduce the valve weight. This is not what is 
needed for good heat rejection in high duty cycle engines.  Lots of 
other engine details are included. 

* Metallurgy Fundamentals Daniel A. Brandt The Goodhart Willcox 
Comp. Inc 1992 ISBN 0-87006-922-5 Lib of Congress 91-22280 Lots of 
data on heat treating, hardness, properties of steel, crystal 
structure, failure & deformation, microscopic structure, surface 
hardening, etc. and stress.

* GM Performance Parts 1997 Parts Catalog. $6.95 at your friendly GM 
dealer. GM may put chewing gum cast iron and powdered metal parts 
in their light duty engines installed in their passenger cars and 
trucks but they will be glad to sell you the 4340 chrome molly  good 
stuff in the parts catalog. Of course all other manufactures are 
putting chewing gum parts in their passenger car engines as well. I 
am not singling out GM.

* Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II by Grame White 
published by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 400 Copyright 
1995. Commonwealth Drive Warrendale PA 15096-0001 (412) 7765 4841 
Fax (412) 776 5760  8.5" by 11" hard bound 400 pages. ISBN 1-56091- 
655-9.  Lots of good drawings, excellent  cutaways and illustrations 
as well as photographs. Surprisingly not technical despite the 
publisher. This is a well researched book with  extensive references 
but rather disappointing to me as I would like to see a lot more 
technical information about power curves verses BSFC, engine 
weights, TBO's  and such. I expected a lot more from the SAE. 
Therefor this expensive book is NOT recommended.

* Scientific Design of Exhaust and Intake Systems. Philip H. Smith
and John C. Morrison Published by Robert Bentley. ISBN 0-8376-0309-9

http://www.rb.com 

I have nothing to do financially with any of these publishers. 

Feel free to send this list of books and papers to anyone who may be 
interested in engines.

Paul Lamar